Make your own free website on

University of New Mexico

College of Education

LLSS 315* Educating Linguistically Diverse Students

SPRING 2009 | Section 450 | 3cr. hrs. | Rm#: UC-221

Thursdays 1-4pm | Burlington Annex on 30th Street

Instructor, Dr. Frances Vitali

505.566.3480 (unm) | 505.324.0894 (home) |  505.330.1536 (cell)

Office: #233 Burlington Annex

Office Hours: One hour before and after class or by appointment

Email: | Webpage <>

Course Blog at

Class Collection Webpages at




“The stories we tell not only explain things to others, they explain them to ourselves.”

(Donald Norman)



Course Description

This course familiarizes students with history, theory, practice, culture, politics of second language pedagogy and orality and literacy.  Students will gain an understanding of effective teaching methods and cultural sensitivity for working with linguistically diverse students, realizing that language and culture are synonymous.

                Rationale: Most classrooms are comprised of uniquely diverse learners on all levels, including linguistically and culturally. As educators, we must learn to be flexible in our thinking, teaching and learning to address, respect, celebrate, and support the richness and complexity of the children we teach.

                Instructional Strategies: Students and instructor will engage in the following ongoing collegial learning interactions: reflective writing, reciprocal learning, reflection/communication blog, authentic learning, practicum experiences, individual conferences, and cooperative and collaborative activities/projects, Literature Circles, Chautauqua.


Responsibilities (see entry-level Language Arts competencies expanded below)

  • Integrate the New Mexico State Competencies for Entry-Level Language Arts Teachers into course content.
  • Be professional at all times – in class and in the field. A. 1(a), 3; B. 2,4; C. 2(c), 4(g)
  • Be receptive to feedback, being reflective while participating in an academic learning community. E. 1(a)(c), 2(b)
  • Engage in collaborating and entering into professional learning opportunities with educators, students, parents, administrators, support staff working with linguistically diverse children. D. 3; F. 2(c)(iv)
  • Conduct and present assignments and projects with professional dispositions and ethical manner sufficiently prepared. G. 1(a), 2(b)(c), 3(a)
  • Practicum experience requires you to exhibit dispositions and professionalism of an educator.
  • Take ownership of learning, remembering that learning is fun, self-directed motivated by your natural curiosity and enthusiasm. The quality of your learning experiences will transfer to the students you eventually teach.


Textbook–Available at SJC Bookstore

                Zainuddin, (2007). Fundamentals of Teaching English to Speakers of Other Languages in K-12 Mainstream Classrooms. Dubuque, Iowa: Kendall/Hunt  (ISBN: 0-7872-9664-3)


Other Materials:

                Online COURSE BLOG at

Class Collection Webpages at

Additional Articles may be provided by instructor and students.


Select and secure (via online at Amazon or other bookstore) ONE of the following books for Literature Circle Dialogue which you will bring to each class session:

  • Mazer, Anne (ed.). America Street: A Multicultural Anthology of Stories. An eclectic sampling of multiethnic and sociocultural experiences highlighting teens of immigrant parents and relatives.
  • Carlson, Lori Marie (ed.). Moccasin Thunder: American Indian Stories for Today, edited by (HarperCollins, 2005). An anthology collection of short stories about contemporary Native American teenagers.
  • Gallo, Donald (ed). Join In: Multiethnic Stories, Anthology of contemporary teens from ethnic backgrounds share their stories of living in U.S.
  • Minnesota Humanities Council (ed.). Braided Lives: An Anthology of Multicultural American Writing.  An anthology by multiethnic writers specifically intended for teens and teachers in Minnesota high schools.
  • King, Laurie. Hear My Voice: A Multicultural Anthology of Literature from the United States. Collection of poems, short stories, autobiographies, essays of multiethnic stories with universal themes.


Additional Materials/Resources

                Supplemental Sources:

·          NCREL Educating Teachers for Diversity (

·          PRIME TIME (

·          River of Words Poetry Contest (

·          Office of English Language Acquisition (

·          IRA NCTE Read/Write/Think/Lessons (

·          FREE San Juan College Calendar of Events | Chautauqua Series: Emily Dickinson Chautauqua on 31 January - 7pm SJC Little Theater |

John Steinbeck Chautauqua on 27 February – 7pm SJC Little Theater For information call 599-8771 or 334-9325

·          NM Endowment for the Humanities (NMEH) (

·          NMEH Chautauqua Characters

·          Veteran History Project: The War by Ken Burns  (

·          Veteran History Project Interview Kit (

·          Prospective Guests: Jon Brinkerhoff on March 5 from 5-8pm | Tryphenia Peele-Eady on March 19 5-8pm, Gayle Barfoot & FMS Bilingual Education Department  | Kathy Hurst from San Juan Media Services, Blanding Utah

·          ENLACE at 1930 San Juan Blvd.


Course Learning Invitations and Expectations (Assignments, projects, activities)

  • Read course blog regularly as a communication tool and post reflections when assigned at


    • Read your email regularly for course updates, reminders and communication in between sessions.
    • Post reflections on our class blog page at as needed.


  • Collaborate (practicum) with students at Apache Elementary School, will provide an authentic setting in which to put theory and practice together as we learn from the children more about ourselves personally and as professionals. Our Oral History Family Chautauqua will be the collaborative lens in which we will pursue our learning this semester. We will record our teaching plans and reflections weekly on our webpages.


  • Create your own Chautauqua character from your own family to perform for 4th graders at Apache will prepare us for our storytelling coaching roles.



  • Present Chapter Presentations with a partner. Our course text will serve as a resource for strategies, theories, cultural understanding and practical applications to prepare you for taking the TESOL endorsement exam and/or teaching in diverse learning settings.  See Rubric Checklist.


  • Selected anthologies provide us with other cultural contexts to talk about in a relaxed, social atmosphere.


  • Plan community Field Trips in an effort to understand our communities. We will each share a community find where you will be responsible for making arrangements for our class visit.


  • Invited guests to our classroom will augment our learning experience: Kathy Hurst from San Juan Media in Blanding, Utah; FMS bilingual staff; Jon Brinkerhoff & Tryphenia Peele-Eady & Renee Mathis-autism. Some presentations will be in the evening from 5-7:30pm and on those Thursdays, class will not meet from 1-3. See Calendar.


  • Webpages are intended as media to house your learning and other intellectual property throughout the semester. Since it is your webpage, you own the material and content, and thus, empowers you as the author. Your webpage becomes documentation, scrapbook, if you will, of your learning over time this semester. It remains your property even after the completion of our course time together. See Class webpages at


  • Midterm and Final Reflections about your learning experiences midway and at the end of our course is a means to help clarify and summarize for yourself what you know and a way to share improvements for me, your course instructor.



                    Midterm and final individual conferences will be held.



Exemplary completion of all Learning Invitations with adherence to all timelines. Evidence of significant development across the five dimensions of learning.


Satisfactory completion of all Learning Invitations. Evidence of acceptable development across the five dimensions of learning.


Attendance Policy

Attendance is required for each class session. Arrive on time to allow classes to begin (and end) at their scheduled times.  Attendance is a crucial and considered your professional responsibility.  Communication with instructor via email, phone or in person is considered proper professional and respectful etiquette. Lateness and leaving early are considered serious interferences with your progress in this class. Thus, you should come to all classes well prepared to assume an active and thoughtful role in the scheduled activities by having read all required readings and completed all class assignments. Attending all classes is for your benefit to fully experience and appreciate the world of children's literature. And further more, we will miss you and your contributions during our time together.


Please rearrange work and appointment schedules so that you can attend each session.

If you are absent more than two times this semester, you can be dropped from the course.

“The reporting of absences does not relieve the student of responsibility for missed assignment, exams, etc.  The student is required to take the initiative in arranging to make up missed work, and it is expected that faculty will cooperate with the student in reasonable arrangements in this regard” (UNM Pathfinder).

It is responsible and respectful to contact instructor or leave message with Dawn in the UNM office if you are going to be late or absent from class. It is also your responsibility to check in with the instructor and consult with a class peer after the missed class for all makes up work.


Silence cell phones out of respect for all learners.

We will observe European etiquette of cell phone use (including texting). Cell phones should be turned off during class to avoid disrupting the   flow of communication & learning for colleagues. Please take care of phone calls before or after class. If you are expecting a necessary call during seminar, please inform instructor before session.

Peter Post of the Emily Post Institute and author of The Etiquette Advantage in Business highlights the tenets of good cell phone etiquette in public settings:

  • If your cell may be bothersome to those around you, do not use it
  • Put your cell on vibrate or turn it off as a courtesy to others
  • If you are expecting a critical phone call, inform instructor prior to seminar
  • If your cell phone does go off, quickly open and close it.
  • Above all, in encouraging an optimum learning environment we all contribute to being considerate, respectful and honest of ourselves and others.

Source: Wollman, D. (2008). Expert: cell phone etiquette 101. Retrieved August 14, 2008. Available at


Accommodation Statement

                The Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) is a federal anti-discrimination statute that provides comprehensive civil rights protection for persons with disabilities. Among other things, this legislation requires that all students with disabilities be guaranteed a learning environment that provides for a reasonable accommodation of their disabilities. If you have a disability requiring accommodation, please contact the instructor as soon as possible to make arrangements.


Plagiarism Statement

                Plagiarism is the presentation as original work by a writer of ideas, words, or thoughts belonging to someone else. You must provide a reference not indicating the source of any specific words borrowed from another source. Any project containing incidents of plagiarism will receive no credit or grade. Plagiarism is a serious offense in any college course and can lead to failure in that course or expulsion from UNM.


Accreditation Information

                The College of Education is an NCATE accredited institution.  NCATE stands for “National Counsel for Accreditation of Teacher Education” (  All COE courses address specific NCATE and professional society guidelines and support the College of Education’s Vision, Mission and Conceptual Framework.  I encourage you to learn about and spend some time thinking about the College of Education’s Vision and Mission Statements. 


LLSS 315        SPRING 2009

Tentative Course Schedule


Introduction: I Am From Poem, Culture (Customs, Beliefs, Language)

FIC Field Trip Reflections post to blog at

Course TEXT: PART I Multicultural Issues (chapters 1-8) - Chapter presentation by Frances

Vocabulary: negative cultural diversity, stereotype, sociotyping, assimilation, acculturation, deep & surface culture, ethnocentrism, high-involvement, high-considerateness, low-context, high-context cultures, field-dependent, field-independent learners, RECONCEPTUALIST

DOWNLOAD Course Syllabus from


(Jan. 29) SJC SMART LAB Computer Lab-Set up webpage sections & Email your tripod webpage URL to me at

Create webpages to maintain throughout semester as your intellectual property

Family Chautauqua Collaboration Project Overview

See Resource: Creating Family Timelines (

Webpage entries: I AM FROM poem

Weekly Scribe



Weekly Scribe

Book Talks & Readings (begin Feb. 5)

Literature Circles-Harvey Daniels

Community Field Trips

Webpage entries: Chautauqua family character story due Feb. 12- videotape

PRACTICUM: Apache Chautauqua reflections/planning

Community Field Trip: ENLACE at 1930 San Juan Blvd. 1-3pm    



Weekly Scribe

Book Talks & Readings

Chapter Presentations

October 12 Midterm Conferences (complete your written five dimensions midterm summary and evaluation and post to your webpage)

Webpage entries: Apache Chautauqua reflections/

PRACTICUM: Apache Chautauqua reflections/planning & Storytelling Group Conferences

GUESTS: Jon Brinkerhoff- March 5, 5-7:30pm - How Brains Learn & Teaching Strategies

Tryphenia Peele-Eady – March 19 , 5-7:30pm  - Diversity issues





Weekly Scribe

Book Talks & Readings

Community Field Trips

GUEST: April 16, 5-7:30pm Renee Mathis-Autism presentation


Chautauqua Family Project:

Dress Rehearsal – April 23 videotaping at 8:15am

Dress Rehearsal – April 30 videotaping at 8:15am | Video editing workshop 1-3 at SJC computer lab

CHAUTAUQUA Performance  for invited parents & family – May 7,  6-8pm

Final Conferences (April 30- complete your written five dimensions final summary and evaluation and post to your webpage)

Webpage entries: Scribe, Apache Chautauqua reflections

Final Exam, optional, as needed (May 16)





Course Strands and Dimensions of Learning

as correlated with UNM Conceptual Framework (Understanding, Practice, Professional Identity)


Means of interpreting and assessing student achievement will involve Course Strands and Dimensions of Learning.


Course Strands

1. communication   2. research/content  3.  technology, and  4. collaboration

components describing your development as readers, writers, storytellers and users of technology.


Five Dimensions of Learning


1. Confidence and Independence (Understanding)
Confidence and independence in your own reading, writing, and thinking abilities. We see growth and development when learners' confidence and independence become coordinated with their actual abilities and skills, content knowledge, use of experience, and reflectiveness about their own learning. The overconfident student learns to ask for help when facing an obstacle; the shy student begins to trust her own abilities and begins to work alone at times, or to insist on presenting her own point of view in discussion. In both cases, students develop along the dimension of confidence and independence.

2. Skills and Strategies (Practice)
Specific skills and strategies involved in composing and communicating effectively, from concept to organization to polishing grammar and correctness, and including technological skills for computer communication and adherence to APA style. Skills and strategies represent the "know-how" aspect of learning. When we speak of "performance" or "mastery," we generally mean that learners have developed skills and strategies to function successfully in certain situations. In this course, it will be communicating as practicum educators in wrapping your own ideas and questions around what educating linguistically diverse children means and how as professionals we can meet their diverse needs of the students with whom you are working.

3. Knowledge Content (Understanding)
Knowledge content refer to the "content" knowledge you gained about this course, your experiences, and communication technologies for expression. Knowledge and understanding is the most familiar dimension, focusing on the "know-what" aspect of learning. What do I know about this content and how can I extend my learning on different levels? What have I learned about nurturing diverse learners?

4. Use of Prior and Emerging Experience (Understanding)
The use of prior and emerging experience involves the ability to draw on your own experience and connect it to your work. A crucial but often unrecognized dimension of learning is the ability to make use of prior experience as well as emerging experience in new situations. It is necessary to observe learners over a period of time while they engage in a variety of activities in order to account for the development of this important capability, which is at the heart of creative thinking and its application. In focusing, reflecting and designing our own research proposal and agenda, our prior experience might be tapped to help scaffold new understandings, or consider how ongoing experience shapes the content knowledge or skills and strategies we are developing.

5. Critical Reflection (Understanding, Practice, Professional Identity)
Reflection refers to your developing awareness of our own learning process, as well as more analytical approaches to reading, writing, and communication. When we speak of reflection as a crucial component of learning, we are not using the term in its commonsense meaning of reverie or abstract introspection. We are referring to the development of your ability to step back and consider a situation critically and analytically, with growing insight into your own learning processes as a kind of metacognition. Have I explored my own personal biases and prejudices, aware of cultural stereotypes and cultural and linguistic sensitivities?

It is important that you are made aware of the course strands and the five dimensions of learning because the ownership of your learning in relation to this course content is a focus of your assessment and evaluation. This evaluative process provides a framework with which you can evaluate your own growth. As learners, you are measuring your own learning given the strands and dimensions, considering them in relation to your prior learning. In assessing your progress, you will provide a midterm and final reflection which will be posted on your webpage. See Guideline below:




PROVIDE WRITTEN MIDTERM & FINAL SUMMARIES AND EVALUATIONS at Individual CONFERENCES as well as downloading to your webpage.



Due March 12 – post to your webpage

Midterm Summary

Summary interpretation of observations and evidence in terms of the five dimensions of learning.


Five dimensions of learning:

  • confidence and independence
  • knowledge content
  • skills and strategies
  • use of prior and emerging experience
  • reflectiveness (critical awareness)


Midterm evaluation

  • Estimated evaluation in terms of grade
  • Suggestions for your own further development during remainder of semester
  • Suggestions for class activities or for the professor to better support learning




Due April 30 – post to your webpage

Final Summary

Summary interpretation of observations and evidence covering the whole semester in terms of the four major strands of work and the five dimensions of learning. Be sure to connect your interpretations with specific examples included in the observations and samples of work.


Five dimensions of learning:

  • confidence and independence
  • knowledge content
  • skills and strategies
  • use of prior and emerging experience
  • reflectiveness (critical awareness)


Final evaluation

  • Reflections on semester's learning experience
  • Any suggestions for the professor for future classes
  • Estimated evaluation in terms of grade









Completed a 


Feb. 19 ENLACE at 1930 San Juan blvd 1-3pm

Make arrangements in advance for our class to meet at designated location.




Post reflection on blog at



Jan. 29



See schedule


As scheduled throughout semester



1. writing, editing, refining, storytelling

2. collaborating w/ students

3. Peer & teacher conferencing

4. STORYTELLING Performance for family & friends

Ongoing sessions throughout semester with peers and with elementary school children




 storytelling and writing process

CHAUTAUQUA Dress Rehearsal – April 23 and 30

AUTHOR’S CHAIR  for  invited parents & family (MAY 7 tentatively)


Text Chapter: Part I


Culture, Custom, Language & I am From


January 22-29




Pair presentations (See Rubric Checklist)



Apache Chautauqua Practicum

Reflection on Your webpage

Weekly throughout semester


Webpage sections: IAM From Poem | Apache Chautauqua Reflections/Planning |  Chautauqua Family Story| Guest Speakers | Book Talks | Midterm Reflection | Final Reflection | Course Reflection | Chapter Presentation

Your Webpage (free webhost on


Email your webpage address to

Webpage presentations on Nov. 27

Create Jan. 29 & maintain throughout semester.

Email webpage address to


Guest Speaker Reflections:

Jon Brinkerhoff-March 5 | 5-7:30pm

Tryphenia Peele-Eady – March 19 | 5-7:30pm

Renee Mathis- April 16 | 5-7:30pm

FMS Bilingual Programs

San Juan Media Center-Kathy Hurst

Reflection on Your webpage

Due week following each presentation



Literature Circle Discussion

Choose ONE book( online-Amazon or SJC Bookstore)

Secure book by Feb. 5

Read & Discuss Feb-April with reading group



(Develop your own family character)


Process Writing-drafts/writing/performance

Feb. 12


Midterm semester Course reflections

Your Webpage

March 12


Final  semester Course reflections

(add to your digital professional portfolio)

Your webpage

April 30













































Eldadiana Arzate


Coelho, Sarah


Dearen, Shelly


Hall, Valerie


Jones, Rachel


Hawkins, Ami


Petree, Samantha


Schofield, Rebekah


Yazzie, Tammie


Other  Thursdays  TBA




____  Presentation with partner

____ Tap prior knowledge

____ Include Hook

____ Learning Styles addressed

____ Creative, innovative, imaginative

____ Content accuracy

____ Methodology/Relevance/Engagement

____ Includes Assessment

____ Additional Resources

11-9 out of 11 = A

8-7 out of 11 = B

____ Enrichment Opportunities

____  Prepared handout(s)







TEXT CHAPTERS FOR PRESENTATIONS                                                                             







PART II: Principles & Practices in New/Second Language Teaching




PART III: Organizing and Planning for Second Language Instruction




PART IV:  CHAPTER 15: Oral Language Development




PART IV: CHAPTER 16: Vocabulary Development




PART IV: CHAPTER 17: Reading Development




PART V: CHAPTER 18: Writing Development








PART V: CHAPTER 20: TESOL & Music, Drama, Art








PART V: CHAPTER 22: TESOL & Social Studies




PART V: CHAPTER 23: Special Education




PART V: CHAPTER 24: Using Technology











































Conceptual Framework for Professional Education:

Professional Understandings, Practices, and Identities



“Those who can do. Those who understand teach.” - Lee Shulman


The College of Education at the University of New Mexico believes that professional education should seek to help individuals develop professional understandings, practices, and identities. These understandings, practices and identities frame the lifelong learning of professional educators and reflect the values articulated in our Mission Statement and in state and national standards and competencies.

Understandings frame the identity and practice of educational professionals. We seek to help students better understand:


·          Human Growth and Development - Patterns in how individuals develop physically, emotionally, and intellectually. How to provide conditions that promote the growth and learning of individuals from diverse cultural and linguistic backgrounds, including those with special learning needs.

·          Culture and Language - The nature of home, school, community, workplace, state, national, and global contexts for learning. How social groups develop and function and the dynamics of power within and among them. How language and other forms of expression reflect cultural assumptions yet can be used to evoke social change. How one’s own background and development shape understanding and interaction.

·          Content of the Disciplines The substance of the disciplines you teach—the central organizing concepts and factual information—and the ways in which new knowledge is created, including the forms of creative investigation that characterize the work of scholars and artists.

·          Pedagogy - Theory and research on effective educational practice. How to create contexts for learning in and across the disciplines. How to assess student learning and design, plan, and implement instruction to meet the needs of learners. How to evaluate educational practice.

·          Technology - Effects of media and technology on knowledge, communication, and society. How to critically analyze and raise awareness of the impact of media and technology. How to use current technology.

·          Professional Issues - The social and political influences on education, both historically and currently. Local, state, and national policies, including requirements and standards. How to critically analyze and participate in the formation of educational policy. Strategies for leadership, collaboration, and research.

ature of Knowledge - How knowledge is constructed within social contexts, including the academic disciplines. The differences and connections among the knowledge constructed in different social contexts. How to conduct inquiry into the nature of knowledge within and across the disciplines.


These practices enable students, as professionals, to apply their understandings, and implement

the following qualities in their instruction:

·          Learner-Centered - Students’ past experiences, cultural backgrounds, interests, capabilities, and understandings are accommodated in learning experiences. Routines promote learner risk-taking and allow learners to take increasing control of their own learning and functioning.

·          Contextual - Experiences engage learners in ways of thinking, doing, talking, writing, reading, etc., that are indicative of the discipline(s) and/or authentic social contexts. Ideas and practices are presented with the richness of their contextual cues and information. Learners are provided with models and opportunities to reflect on their experiences and to relate their learning to other social contexts.

·          Coherent - Learning experiences are organized around the development of concepts and strategies that learners need in order to participate in other similar situations. Learners are assessed on what they had the opportunity to learn.

·                      Culturally Responsive - Diversity is valued, and learners are helped to become aware of the impact of culture on how they and others perceive the world.

·          Technologically Current - Available technology facilitates learning. Learners are helped to understand the effect of media on their perceptions and communication.

·          Developing a professional identity is central to lifelong growth as a professional educator. The University of New Mexico College of Education will help students develop the following attributes of a professional:

·          Caring - Attentive to learners, willingness to listen and withhold judgment, and ability to empathize while maintaining high expectations for learner success.

·          Advocacy - Committed to ensuring equitable treatment and nurturing environments for all learners.

·          Inquisitiveness - Habitual inquiry into the many, ever-changing ways in which knowledge is constructed, how people learn, and how educators can support learning.

·          Reflection-in-Action - Able to analyze, assess and revise practice in light of student learning, research and theory, and collegial feedback.

·          Communication - Skilled in speaking, writing, and using other modes of expression.

·          Collaboration - Able to work cooperatively with students, parents, community members, and colleagues.

·          Ethical Behavior - Aware of and able to work within the ethical codes of the profession.







NM Language Arts Standards & Benchmarks


(1)Teachers of English language arts shall: demonstrate knowledge that growth in language maturity is a developmental process.

1(a) Elementary language teachers shall understand developmental theories and processes by which children acquire, understand and use language from infancy through childhood.

(3) will demonstrate knowledge that speaking, reading, writing, listening and thinking are interrelated.



(2) Teachers of English language arts shall: understand the importance of rich oral language experiences in early grades and how those experiences can lead to writing skills.

(4) All language arts teachers shall understand the importance of learning about practicing various aspects of composing processes. (prewriting,writing,revising,editing,evaluating) in order to achieve the knowledge rewuired to teach those processes well.

Understandings & Practices


2(c) All language arts teachers shall be able to teach students to ask questions that elicit both oral and written responses at a variety of levels.

4(g) All language arts teachers shall draw upon literature in many genres from many historical periods, and of varying degrees of complexity in order to develop and elicit critical insights from their students.

Understandings & Practices


(3) All language arts teachers shall be familiar with aspects of electronic media-internet, word processing, CD-RPM and other relevant media to be able to effectively teach through the use of both verbal and visual media.

Understandings & Practices


(1)Teachers of English language arts shall demonstrate knowledge of evaluative techniques to be used to describe a student’s progress in English.

(a) All language arts teachers shall demonstrate competence in applying a number of evaluative techniques, including individual conferences, for determining and reporting student progress.

(c) All language arts teachers shall be proficient at ”student watching” and other informal ways of describing student progress in all language processes.

2(b) All language arts teachers shall be able to select the most appropriate formal and informal ways to assess or evaluate growth in oral and written language and reading skills.

Understandings & Practices

F.        RESEARCH

(2)(iv) All language arts teachers shall that students of diverse cultures interpret written and oral language in different ways.

Understandings & Practices


(1) Teachers of English language arts are able to effectively deliver instruction using a variety of approaches.

(2) Teachers of English language arts shall understand that the classroom is composed of students with varied needs such as physical disabilities, learning disabilities, limited English proficiency, and cultural diversity.

(b) All language arts teachers need to be aware of varied students needs and how to modify and implement instruction for diverse learners.

(c) All language arts teachers need to be aware of strategies for helping students be sensitive to and understanding of each other’s learning and social needs.

(3) Teachers of English language arts shall understand that the educational process includes families, and the social and economic communities.

Understandings, Practices & Professional Identity